Category Archives: poster

Research Poster: Exploring Colour & Lighting As Effective Tools For Visual Storytelling

This is the completed poster for my research topic; Exploring Colour & Lighting As Effective Tools For Visual Storytelling. It took awhile to arrange all the information I’ve gathered into cohesive and understandable sentences. I think at this point of the research process my understanding of what I want to research is clear and I’m confident that when asked, I can explain and summarise the context of the research.



This research intends to understand and analyse how colour and lighting are used in films as tools to support and communicate a story. While there will be a primary focus on animated films, investigation into live action features will be referenced as well. Comparisons between various films including Tonko House’s The Dam Keeper (2014), Pixar’s Wall·E (2008) and Guillermo del Toro’s Crimson Peak (2015) will discuss these concepts in relation to the creation of a compelling story. This research will also explore the methods that filmmakers – both student and working professional – can employ to safeguard the core theme of their narrative so that it does not become lost during the lengthy process of production.


From a research perspective, the cognitive examination of animated films represent challenges and explorative queries unique to its medium. Unlike live action films, the animator is not confined to logic or to the physical laws of the real world as they no longer exist, the filmmaker in this instance is confronted with creating the entire narrative space from scratch (Buchan, 2006; Buchan, 2011). The creation of the life and core structure of that visual world is only limited to their choices and imagination. Although the visual space and characters should have some roots in realism, for the most part animators have the freedom to defy laws of physics and bring life to characters and objects that are impossible to create within the confines of a live action film (Brunnick & Cutting, 2014). Every aspect of the project from the concept art, character design, environment design, modelling, layout, animation, special effects, colour, lighting, sound, music, rendering and editing must be considered and then developed by the filmmakers. This process of bringing the extremities of the believable and the fantastical together is immense, complex and intricate.


‘Visual storytelling is a vast topic that reaches far beyond the realm of lighting’ (Calahan, 1996). Colour and lighting in a film are meant to affect the viewer subliminally without being noticeable on a conscious level. The purpose of these principles is to add depth to the film’s story and to the viewer’s overall visual experience.

A change in lighting can alter the meaning of the story effectively. The Dam Keeper (2014) is an example of a film that sought to animate light itself. The light in each scene is designed as a separate cinematic component that resulted in a unique visual style of ever shifting images that resembled a children’s illustrated storybook come to life (Kondo & Tsutsumi, 2014). The filmmakers placed emphasis on colour and lighting to not only create mood and atmosphere but to also guide and connect the audience to that scene.

Since Isaac Newton’s discovery of the visible spectrum of light and the invention of the modern colour wheel, scientific discoveries regarding the perception of colour and its relationship to human emotions has influenced its use in art, design, animation and film. Guillermo del Toro’s live action period horror film Crimson Peak (2015) relied heavily on colour and lighting as narrative devices. With custom built sets that gave him complete control of lighting del Toro also made liberal use of strongly saturated contrasting colours as narrative cues. When a scene changed from bright and diffused to saturated and contrasting it was a visual signal to the audience of something supernatural and horrific about to occur on screen.

‘No amount of the best animation in the world will ever save a bad story, or a bad story reel’ (Lasseter, 2007)

Because filmmakers in animation have a more liberal amount freedom of creation, there is a risk for the story development of the film to become neglected as a result of them becoming lost in the technical and aesthetic aspects of production. When examining the film making concepts of several successful contemporary animation filmmakers there is often an emphasis placed on cinematic storytelling. They would utilise tools such as colour, lighting and composition in the form of extensive storyboarding and colour scripting before creating animatic story reels that become the ‘living blueprint of the finished film’ (Stanton, 2008). Wall·E (2008) is one successful example of an extensive storyboarding process. Over 80,000 storyboards were completed as the story arc evolved and reshaped over the years of production (Reardon, 2008). The filmmakers understood that the story reel should entertain and evoke wonder into the audience just as the final film would. If the story reel is unable to communicate the narrative to the viewer succinctly then there is little chance that a fully animated film would.


The objective of the research is to show the crucial role that colour and lighting play in the production of an animated feature. By focusing on the aforementioned examples the research will also reveal effective storytelling methods and concepts that animators can adhere to so that their work engages and resonates emotionally with their audiences.

METHODOLOGY Several methods will be implemented during the research process in order to investigate and understand these topics as thoroughly as possible within the given time frame. Practical applications and experimentation of colour and lighting theory will also be used to further support the research.

  • OBSERVATION Research, identify, observe and analyse films that empathise or rely on the use of colour and lighting as mechanisms of effective visual storytelling.
  • CRITICAL ANALYSIS Examining research to gauge an understanding of the different practices employed by filmmakers in their usage of colour and lighting during the production of their work.  Critical evaluation of these processes is intended to nurture deeper comprehension and implementation of such storytelling concepts during practice.
  • VISUAL DESIGN World building. Designing character and film concepts, storyboard scenes with focus on communicating narrative before transitioning to colour scripting to establish mood and the characters’ changing emotional states.
  • PEER REVIEWS Peer (both student and professional) interviews, questionnaires and feedback to examine and discuss their opinions and understanding regarding the importance of colour and light in animation.


  • December Research. Moodboard. Draft Script. Concept Art (Character & Environment). Story Development.
  • January Research. Script. Concept Art (Model Sheet). Storyboard.
  • February Animatic. Rough Character Animation Test. Rough Paint Render Test. Peer Discussion. Music Research.
  • March Story Adjustments. 3D Modelling. Character Animation. Digital Rendering. Backgrounds.
  • April 3D Printing. Animation. Digital Rendering. Screen Test With Audience.
  • May  Animation. Digital Rendering.
  • June Final Animation. Digital Rendering. Clean-Up.
  • July Editing. Credit Graphics. Rendering. Making Of Artbook.
  • August Touch-Ups & Editing. Printing of Artbook. Final Submission.



  • Brunick, K. and Cutting, J. (2014). Cognitive Media Theory. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp.124 – 138.
  • Buchan, S. (Ed.). (2006). Animated Worlds. Eastleigh, UK: John Libbey.
  • Buchan, S. (2011). Ghosts in the machine: Experiencing animation. In G. Hilty (Ed.), Watch Me Move: TheAnimation Show. London: Merrell.
  • Calahan, S. (1996). Storytelling Through Lighting: A Computer Graphics Perspective. SIGGRAPH Course Notes. [online] Available at: siggraph_courses/s96_course30.pdf [Accessed 20 Nov. 2015].
  • Stanton, A. (2008). The art of WALL-E. San Francisco: Chrotnicle Books. Reardon, J. (2008). The art of WALL-E. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.


  • The Dam Keeper. (2014). [film] Robert Kondo And Daisuke Tsutsumi.Tonko house
  • WALL·E. (2008). [film] Andrew Staton Disney, Pixar Animation Studios.
  • Crimson Peak, 2015. [Film] Guillermo del Toro, United States: Legendary Pictures.
  • Skwigly Online Animation Magazine. (2015). Lightbox – ‘The Dam Keeper’ directors Robert Kondo & Dice Tsutsumi (Pixar/Tonko . [Online Video]. Jan 13, 2015. Available from: [Accessed: 20 November 2015].
  • The Film Theorists. (2015). Crimson Peak and The Color of FEAR – Frame By Frame. [Online Video]. Nov 5, 2015. Available from: [Accessed: 16 November 2015].
  • Schoolism. (2014). Painting with Light and Color with Dice Tsutsumi and Robert Kondo. [Online Video]. 02 December 2014. Available from: [Accessed: 03 November 2015].

Deadly Cargo: Nuclear Death on the Road

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01(Poster)(ScreenPrint)DeadlyCargo(Web)Deadly Cargo (Screen Print)

For many years nuclear warheads have been regularly and secretly transported along the roads of England and Scotland in specially designed trucks in convoys that include armed escorts, communications and breakdown vehicles.

While a nuclear explosion is unlikely there is more risk of plutonium dust being released in the event of damage occurring to the warhead. On the wind, the dust can be spread to a large area and as the routes used by these convoys include not only motorways but ordinary single carriageway roads that pass close or even through local towns.

My imaginary play Deadly Cargo: Nuclear Death On The Road is based on this very real risk. I designed a screen print poster which focuses on the title and illustration of a cargo transport truck with trident missile warheads in its windshield. I carried on this emphasis towards the warhead transport lorry onto the set design model which transforms the cargo truck into a moving theatre.